Planning deals with future and involves forecasting. A manager does not plan about the past though in his planning for future he is also guided by the past performances. Since planning is concerned with the activities to be performed in the future environment so it requires projecting the future activities in the organisation. Planning as a process involves the determination of the future course of action. While planning, a manager prepares the plans for the future, sets the goals to be achieved, and decides the activities desired to achieve that results. It requires determination of objectives and the ways of accomplishing them. So planning is concerned about what to do, when to do, how to do, and who is to do it. Planning basically bridges up the gap where we are and where we want to go.
Definitions of Planning
According to Henry Fayol, “Planning is deciding the best alternative among others to perform different managerial operations in order to achieve the pre-determined goals.”
According to Urwick, “Planning is a mental predisposition to do things in orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than guess.”
Rudyard Kipling explained planning in following assertion:
I keep six honest serving men,
They taught me all I Know
Their names are what, where and when,
And how, and why, and who.
So planning is concerned with deciding: